The name Solomon (Schlomo) means "peaceful", or "complete", from the Hebrew Shelomoh. The name given by God to Solomon in the Bible is Jedidiah, meaning "friends of God", (2 Samuel 2:25), and some scholars have conjectured that Solomon is a "king name" taken either when he assumed the throne or upon his death.
Solomon's case is one of the few in the Bible where the name given by God does not stay with the character. Solomon's birth is considered a grace from God, after the death of the previous child between David and Bathsheba.
Solomon was David's second son by Bathsheba, and his declared heir to the throne. Solomon's history is recorded in 1 Kings 1-11 and 2 Chronicles 1-9. He succeeded his father (reigned approx 1010 BC to 970 BC) around 970 BC, not 1037 BD (1 Kings 6:1), according to E. R. Thiele. His father chose him as a successor, passing over claims of his elder sons, by women other than Bathsheba. His elevation to the throne took place before his father's death, and is hastened on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah.
During his long reign of 40 years the Hebrew monarchy gained its highest splendor. This period has been called the "Augustan Age" of Jewish annals. In a single year, he collected tribute amounting to 666 talents of gold, according to 1 Kings 10:14.
The first half of his reign was by far the brighter and more prosperous; the latter half was clouded by the idolatries into which he fell, mainly, according to the scribes, from his intermarriages. According to 1 Kings 11:3, he had 700 wives and 300 concubines. As soon as he had settled himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive emprie, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by a marriage with the daughter of Pharoah.
Battles of Solomon
Solomon & Hadad the Edomite
Solomon's marriage to foreign wives, and his token respect to them brought Israel's defenses down, giving Hadad an opportunity to vex Israel. Hadad had seen his people killed as a young child, and while in Egypt was given wealth and the right had of Pharaoh. When Hadad hears of Joab and David's death, he petitions Pharoah, now his brother-in-law to return to Edom.
Solomon & Rezon
This is a feneral series of battles referred to and suggest more that it was a war of constant terrorism oujt of hatred for Israel and Solomon. In 2 Samuel 8:3, David had gone to recover the borders of the Euphrates in the Northern portion of the Kingdom and slew Hadadezer, the King of Zobah in the process. Rezon appears to have been a part of the men of Zobah who were withHadadezer in fighting David. He still had a taste of defeat by Israel, and in the more quiet reign of David's son, continue the harrassment and aggravation.